Nuclear Is Safe? No They Lied To You; Detailed Data
A list of non classified nuclear disasters
chalk one up for Chalk River Canada
rating 5 a “reactor shutoff rod failure,
combined with several operator errors,
led to a major power excursion of more
than double the reactor's rated output
at AECL's NRX reactor” then a big deal.1952
“A reactor shutoff rod failure, combined
with several operator errors, led to a major
power excursion of more than double the
reactor's rated output at AECL's NRX reactor.
The operators purged the reactor's heavy water
moderator, and the reaction stopped in under
30 seconds. A cover gas system failure led to
hydrogen explosions, which severely damaged
the reactor core. The fission products from
approximately 30 kg of uranium were released
through the reactor stack. Irradiated light-water
coolant leaked from the damaged coolant circuit
into the reactor building; some 4,000 cubic meters
were pumped via pipeline to a disposal area to avoid
contamination of the Ottawa River. Subsequent
monitoring of surrounding water sources revealed
no contamination. No immediate fatalities or injuries
resulted from the incident; a 1982 follow up study
of exposed workers showed no long-term health effects.
Future U.S. President Jimmy Carter, then a Lieutenant
in the US Navy, was among the cleanup crew.”
Entrant two Windscale Pile United Kingdom
rating 5 a “Release of radioactive material to
the environment following a fire in a reactor
core.” Toast a good year for nuclear disasters.1957
graphite core of a British nuclear “[weapons
programme] reactor at Windscale, Cumberland
(now Sellafield, Cumbria) caught fire, releasing
substantial amounts of radioactive contamination
into the surrounding area.” Radioactive fire.
A warm welcome to entrant three. Kyshtym
Russia rating 6 a “Significant release of
radioactive material to the environment
from explosion of a high activity waste tank.” 1957
“The Kyshtym disaster was a radiation
contamination incident that occurred
on 29 September 1957 at Mayak,
a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Russia
(then a part of the Soviet Union) . It measured
as a Level 6 disaster on the International
Nuclear Event Scale, making it the third most
serious nuclear accident ever recorded
(after the Chernobyl disaster, and Fukushima
Daiichi nuclear disaster, both Level 7
on the INES scale) . The cooling system in one
of the tanks containing about 70–80 tons
of liquid radioactive waste failed and was not
repaired. The temperature in it started to rise,
resulting in evaporation and a chemical explosion
of the dried waste, consisting mainly of ammonium
nitrate and acetates (see ammonium nitrate bomb) .
The explosion, estimated to have a force of about
70–100 tons of TNT threw the concrete lid,
weighing 160 tons, into the air. There were no
immediate casualties as a result of the explosion,
which released an estimated 2 to 50 MCi
(74 to 1850 PBq) of radioactivity. In the next
10 to 11 hours, the radioactive cloud moved
towards the northeast, reaching 300–350
kilometers from the accident. The fallout
of the cloud resulted in a long-term
contamination of an area of more than 800
square kilometers, primarily with caesium-137
and strontium-90. This area is usually referred
to as the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) .”
Please all welcome contestant one back
Chalk River Canada (rating?) “Due to
inadequate cooling a damaged uranium
fuel rod caught fire and was torn in two.” 1958
“Due to inadequate cooling a damaged
uranium fuel rod caught fire and was torn
in two as it was being removed from
the core at the NRU reactor. The fire was
extinguished, but not before radioactive
combustion products contaminated the interior
of the reactor building and, to a lesser degree,
an area surrounding the laboratory site.
Over 600 people were employed in the clean-up.”
Champagne pops cheer another good year
Vinč a Yugoslavia (rating?) “During
a subcritical counting experiment a power
buildup went undetected - six scientists
received high doses.” What detailed detail? 1958
“During a subcritical counting experiment
a power buildup went undetected at the Vinca
Nuclear Institute's zero-power natural uranium
heavy water moderated research reactor. Saturation
of radiation detection chambers gave the researchers
false readings and the level of moderator in the reactor
tank was raised triggering a criticality excursion
which a researcher detected from the smell of ozone.
Six scientists received radiation doses of 2—4 Sv
(200—400 rems) (p.96) . An experimental bone
marrow transplant treatment was performed on all
of them in France and five survived, despite
the ultimate rejection of the marrow in all cases.
A single woman among them later had a child without
apparent complications. This was one of the first
nuclear incidents investigated by then newly-formed IAEA.”
Applause please for our first American entry
Santa Susana Field Laboratory US (rating?)
“Partial core meltdown.” Sounds serious.
Tick one deep operations public cover up.1959
“A partial core meltdown may have taken place
when the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE)
experienced a power excursion that caused severe
overheating of the reactor core, resulting
in the melting of one-third of the nuclear fuel
and significant releases of radioactive gases.”
Time to take a nice country waltz in a US county
Westinghouse Waltz Mill Westmoreland County
(rating?) a core melt accident in a test reactor? 1960
“one fuel element melted resulting in the disposition
of two million gallons of contaminated water generated
during the accident. At least a portion of the water was
retained on site in lagoons, a condition which eventually
lead to detectable Sr-90 in ground water plus contaminated
soil. The site is currently undergoing cleanup.” Really?
Looks like American is going for a hat trick
Charlestown US (rating?) “Error by a worker
at a United Nuclear Corporation fuel facility
led to an accidental criticality”. Human error? 1964
“An error by a worker at a United Nuclear Corporation
fuel facility led to an accidental criticality. Robert Peabody,
believing he was using a diluted uranium solution, accidentally
put concentrated solution into an agitation tank containing
sodium carbonate. Peabody was exposed to 10,000rad (100Gy)
of radiation and (died two days later) . Ninety minutes after
the criticality, a plant manager and another administrator
returned to the building and were exposed to 100rad (1Gy) ,
but suffered no ill effects.” How long in body is cancer creeping?
Yes score a limelight hat trick for team USA
Monroe US (rating?) “Sodium cooling system
malfunction.” Human error or mechanical?
Again deep cover details lacking team USA.1966
“A sodium cooling system malfunction caused
a partial meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration
nuclear breeder reactor (Enrico Fermi-1 fast breeder
reactor) . The accident was attributed to a zirconium
fragment that obstructed a flow-guide in the sodium
cooling system. Two of the 105 fuel assemblies melted
during the incident, but no contamination was recorded
outside the containment vessel.” Nice demonstration?
Heavy duty classified dudes. (Date? Rating? Location?
Unknown?) Soviet icebreaker ‘Lenin’, “USSR’s first
nuclear-powered surface ship, suffered a major accident
(possibly a meltdown...) in one of its three reactors.
To find the leak the crew broke through the concrete and
steel radiation shield with sledgehammers, causing
irreparable damage. It was rumored that around 30 of the
crew were killed. The ship was abandoned for a year to
allow radiation levels to dropp before the three reactors
were removed, to be dumped into the Tsivolko Fjord on
the Kara Sea, along with 60% of the fuel elements packed
in a separate container.” Soviet widow maker. Winter 1966-1967
“The reactors were replaced with two new ones, and
the ship re-entered service in 1970, serving until 1989.”
Now we return to previous country entrant two.
Dumfries and Galloway, Chapelcross Scotland UK
United Kingdom (rating?) reactor core “Graphite
debris partially blocked a fuel channel causing a
fuel element to melt and catch fire.” Heavy Metal Fire? 1967
Contamination was confined to the Chapelcross
nuclear power station reactor core? Oh happy news.
“The core was repaired and restarted in 1969,
operating until the plant's shutdown in 2004.”
A pleasant skip across to continent Europe
Lucens Switzerland (rating?) a “Total loss
of coolant led to a power excursion and
explosion of experimental reactor.” Bad? 1969
“A total loss of coolant led to a power excursion
and explosion of an experimental nuclear reactor
in a large cave at Lucens. The underground location
of this reactor acted like a containment building
and prevented any outside contamination.
The cavern was heavily contaminated and was sealed.
No injuries or fatalities resulted. (Sure?) De-fuelling
and partial dismantling occurred from 1969 to 1973.
In 1988, the lowest caverns were filled with concrete,
and a regulatory permit was issued in December 1990.
Currently, the archives of the Canton of Vaud
are located in the caverns.” Not open to public viewing.
Future forecast Japan blows three reactors at
Fukushima due to coolant lacking back up power? 2011
Crossing ‘The Wall’ with ease a nuclear breeze
we enter Cold War Griefswald East Germany
rating 3 vodka toast hot partly damaged reactor
Greifswald East Germany (rating?) Foot noted as
“Excessive heating which damaged ten fuel rods” 1989
Reality investigative journalism reveals near core
meltdown, the fifth dangerous incident at the plant.
“Three out of six cooling water pumps were switched
off for a test. A fourth pump broke down and control
of the reactor was lost” accident reportedly attributed
to sticky relay contacts. Sneaky cover up. December 7,1975
main trough fire destroyed current supply control lines
of 5 of 6 main coolant pumps, rating 4, declassified 1989
“Operators disabled three of six cooling pumps'
electrical supply circuits to test emergency
shutoffs. Instead of the expected automatic
shutdown, a fourth pump failed causing
excessive heating which damaged ten fuel rods.
The accident was attributed to sticky relay
contacts and generally poor construction
in the Soviet-built reactor.” Welcome in.1975
A quick visit to a former Soviet satellite state
rating 4 Jaslovské Bohunice Czechoslovakia
“Damaged fuel integrity, extensive corrosion
damage of fuel cladding... release of radioactivity.” 1977
“Operators neglected to remove moisture-absorbing
materials from a fuel rod assembly before loading
it into the KS 150 reactor at power plant A-1.” Oops.
“The accident resulted in damaged fuel integrity,
extensive corrosion damage of fuel cladding
and release of radioactivity into the plant area.
The affected reactor was decommissioned following
this accident.” An irreparable damage wise decision.
A chance to remember a really famous blow out
Middletown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania US
rating 5 Three Mile Island US “Severe damage to
the reactor core.” A cooling system meltdown.1979
“Equipment failures and worker mistakes contributed
to a loss of coolant and a partial core meltdown
at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station
15 km (9.3 mi) southeast of Harrisburg. While the reactor
was extensively damaged, on-site radiation exposure
was under 100 millirems (less than annual exposure due
to natural sources) . Area residents received a smaller
exposure of 1 millirem (10 µSv) , or about 1/3 the dose
from eating a banana per day for one year. There were
no fatalities. Follow-up radiological studies predict
between zero and one long-term cancer fatality.” It was worse!
Let us adjourn sip wine in Orléans near gay Paris
rating 4 Saint Laurent des Eaux France. “Melting
of one channel of fuel in the reactor with no release
outside the site.” Nicely swept under the mat.1980
“A brief power excursion in Reactor A2 led to a rupture
of fuel bundles and a minor release (8 x 1010 Bq) of nuclear
materials at the Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant.
The reactor was repaired and continued operation
until its decommissioning in 1992.” No health risk to you?
A new island entrant extreme earthquake risk Japan
rating 2 Tsuraga Japan “100 workers were exposed
to doses of up to 155 millirem per day radiation.” 1981
Wow this was a honeymoon warning not heeded?
“More than 100 workers were exposed to doses
of up to 155 millirem per day radiation during repairs
of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant, violating
the Japan Atomic Power Company's limit of 100
millirems (1 mSv) per day.” Wow radioactive materials
were released into Sea of Japan? Workers radiated?
This foreshadows Japanese 2011 hot radiation remix.
Ontario New York (rating?) “A steam pipe burst at
the Ginna Nuclear Generating Station, resulting in a
loss of coolant and gasses were intentionally vented
to the atmosphere to reduce risks of explosion.” 1982
Japan attempted this procedure blow it three times.2011
Buenos Aires Argentina rating 4 “An operator error
during a fuel plate reconfiguration in an experimental
test reactor led to an excursion... operator absorbed
2000 rad (20 Gy) of gamma and 1700 rad (17 Gy) of
neutron radiation which killed him two days later.” 1983
“An operator error during a fuel plate reconfiguration
in an experimental test reactor led to an excursion
of 3×1017 fissions at the RA-2 facility. The operator
absorbed 2000 rad (20 Gy) of gamma and 1700 rad
(17 Gy) of neutron radiation which killed him two days
later. Another 17 people outside of the reactor room
absorbed doses ranging from 35 rad (0.35 Gy) to less
than 1 rad (0.01 Gy) .” Worker death not case hidden.
Chernobyl Ukraine (USSR) rating 7 “Widespread
health and environmental effects. External release
of a significant fraction of reactor core inventory.” 1986
So brief? Someone really hid scary data on this mega
disaster. Power excursion, explosion, complete meltdown.
Fifty fatalities initially reported mostly cleanup personnel.
explosion combustion of graphite reactor core spread
radioactive material across Europe. “100,000 people
were evacuated from the areas immediately surrounding
Chernobyl in addition to 300,000 from the areas of heavy
fallout in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia” still radiating.
“An 'Exclusion Zone' was created surrounding the site
encompassing approximately 1,000 mi² (3,000 km²) ”
and deemed off-limits for human habitation... studies
by governments, UN agencies and environmental groups
have estimated the consequences and eventual number
of casualties. Their findings are subject to controversy.”
Why because the estimated kill list topped over a million!
This was a power excursion explosion, complete meltdown!
Chernobyl still stealth killing chilling data not funny haha!
“An inadequate reactor safety system led to an uncontrolled
power excursion, causing a severe steam explosion, meltdown
and release of radioactive material at the Chernobyl nuclear
power plant located approximately 100 kilometers
north-northwest of Kiev. Approximately fifty fatalities
(mostly cleanup personnel) resulted from the accident
and the immediate aftermath. An additional nine fatal
cases of thyroid cancer in children in the Chernobyl
area have been attributed to the accident. The explosion
and combustion of the graphite reactor core spread
radioactive material over much of Europe.” Mass cover up!
Let us now speed through so many more to do?
Hamm-Uentrop Germany (rating?) “Spherical
fuel pebble became lodged in the pipe used to
deliver fuel elements to the reactor.” Sparks? 1986
Not the Flintstones ‘Bamm-Bamm’ Bam it’s dangerous.
“A spherical fuel pebble became lodged in the pipe used
to deliver fuel elements to the reactor at an experimental
300-megawatt THTR-300 HTGR. Attempts by an operator
to dislodge the fuel pebble damaged its cladding, releasing
radiation detectable up to two kilometers from the reactor.”
Vandellos Spain rating 3 “Near accident caused by fire
resulting in loss of safety systems at the nuclear power
station” meant rain in Spain could radiate the plain.1989
Less detail given but commonality is disaster obvious.
Cadarache France rating 2 “Spread of contamination
to an area not expected by design” proves design error.1993
Back in the US, back in the US, USSR another disaster?
Tomsk Russia rating 4 “Pressure buildup led to an
explosive mechanical failure” another Soviet oops.1993
Yes big time. “The accident exposed 160 on-site
workers and almost two thousand cleanup workers
to total doses of up to 50 mSv (the threshold limit
for radiation workers is 100 mSv per 5 years) . Nasty.
“A pressure buildup led to an explosive mechanical
failure in a 34 cubic meter stainless steel reaction vessel
buried in a concrete bunker under building 201 of the
radiochemical works at the Tomsk-7 Siberian Chemical
Enterprise plutonium reprocessing facility. The vessel
contained a mixture of concentrated nitric acid, uranium
(8757 kg) , plutonium (449 g) along with a mixture of
radioactive and organic waste from a prior extraction cycle.
The explosion dislodged the concrete lid of the bunker
and blew a large hole in the roof of the building, releasing
approximately 6 GBq of Pu 239 and 30 TBq of various
other radionuclides into the environment. The contamination
plume extended 28 km NE of building 201,20 km beyond
the facility property. The small village of Georgievka (pop.200)
was at the end of the fallout plume, but no fatalities,
illnesses or injuries were reported. The accident exposed
160 on-site workers and almost two thousand cleanup
workers to total doses of up to 50 mSv (the threshold
limit for radiation workers is 100 mSv per 5 years) .”
Oh dear another bad disaster ridden radiated year
Ishikawa Prefecture Japan rating 2 “Control rod malfunction”.1999
No! Want accurate gossip on this shameful cover up?
“Operators attempting to inser one control rod during
an inspection neglected procedure and instead withdrew
three causing a 15 minute uncontrolled sustained reaction
at the number 1 reactor of Shika Nuclear Power Plant. The
Hokuriku Electric Company who owned the reactor did not
report this incident and falsified records, covering it up until...2007.”
Oh dear really naughty Japan needs a new safe nuclear plan?
Ibaraki Prefecture Japan rating 4 “An accidental critality”
Old inadequately training, cost cutting part-time, workers trick?
Tokaimura “Fatal over exposures of workers
following a criticality event at a nuclear facility”.1999
“Inadequately trained part-time workers prepared
a uranyl nitrate solution containing about 16.6 kg
of uranium, which exceeded the critical mass, into
a precipitation tank at a uranium reprocessing
facility in Tokai-mura northeast of Tokyo, Japan.
The tank was not designed to dissolve this type
of solution and was not configured to prevent
eventual criticality. Three workers were exposed
to (neutron) radiation doses in excess of allowable
limits. Two of these workers died.116 other workers
received lesser doses of 1 mSv or greater though not
in excess of the allowable limit.” Cost cutting measures?
“Twelve hours after the start of the incident residents
within 10 km were asked to stay indoors”.
Another better late than never scenario; to be reused.
Ikitelli Turkey rating 3 “Loss of a highly radioactive
Co-60 source” “combined with several operator errors,
led to a major power excursion of more than double
the reactor's output” surge juicing up the power grid.1999
Yanangio Peru rating 3 “Incident with radiography
source resulting in severe radiation burns” smarting.1999
Welcome to heralded high tech twenty first century?
Authorities have finally implemented adequate nuclear
fool proof safety procedures right? Wrong. So Sorry.
Paks Hungary rating 3 “Partially spent fuel rods
undergoing cleaning in a tank of heavy water
ruptured and spilled fuel pellets” ruptured scary.2003
Paks Nuclear Power Plant. “It is suspected that inadequate
cooling of the rods during the cleaning process combined
with a sudden influx of cold water thermally shocked fuel
rods causing them to split. Boric acid was added to the tank
to prevent the loose fuel pellets from achieving criticality.
Ammonia and hydrazine were also added to absorb iodine-131.”
Sellafield England UK rating 3 ”Release of large quantity of
radioactive material, contained within the installation”.2005
“20 metric tons of uranium and 160 kilograms of plutonium
dissolved in 83,000 litres of nitric acid leaked over several
months from a cracked pipe into a stainless steel sump chamber
at the Thorp nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The partially
processed spent fuel was drained into holding tanks outside
the plant.” Adds extra colour to the neighbourhood. Creepy.
Braidwood Illinois USA (rating?) a nuclear material
leak. “Tritium contamination of groundwater was
discovered at Exelon's Braidwood station.” How much? 2005
“Tritium contamination of groundwater was discovered
at Exelon's Braidwood station. Groundwater off site remains
within safe drinking standards though the NRC is requiring
the plant to correct any problems related to the release.”
Always within safe levels later but locals start dying like flies?
Atucha Argentina rating 2 “Overexposure of a worker
at a power reactor exceeding the annual limit” 2005
Erwin Tennessee USA rating 2 “Thirty-five litres
of a highly enriched uranium solution leaked during
transfer into a lab at Nuclear Fuel Services Erwin Plant.
The incident caused a seven-month shutdown. A required
public hearing on the licensing of the plant was not held
due to the absence of public notification.” Naughty.2006
Forsmark Sweden rating 2 “Degraded safety functions
for common cause failure in the emergency power
supply system at nuclear power plant”. Maintenance? 2006
Fleurus Belgium rating 4 “Severe health effects for a
worker at a commercial irradiation facility as a result
of high doses of radiation” Human mechanical error? 2006
Onagawa Japan “Reactor shutdown after the 2011
Sendai earthquake and tsunami caused a fire”. 2011
Miyagi earthquake produced vibrations above plant design 2005
Results. Unit 1 was shut down due to test results. November 2006
Unit 2 confirmed pipe leak due to debris damage. May 2006
Pressure control difficulties prompted further inspections. June 2006
METI and Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency determined
plant's performance was not satisfactory. July 2006
Unit 3 pipe integrity concerns reactor was shut down. July 2006
Reactor repaired restarted. Tō hoku earthquake. November 2006
Damaged turbines a fire broke out; plant shut down. March 2011
Fukushima Japan (rating?) after early trickie dickie lie reports
rating 5 (later updated when data could no longer be hidden) rating 7
Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, Japan had partial meltdowns in
multiple reactors, emergency power failure,3 hydrogen explosions?
“After the 2011 Tō hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11,
the emergency power supply of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear
power plant failed. This was followed by deliberate releases
of radioactive gas from reactors 1 and 2 to relieve pressure. On
March 12, triggered by falling water levels, a hydrogen explosion
occurred at reactor 1, resulting in the collapse of the concrete outer
structure. Although the reactor containment itself was confirmed
to be intact, the hourly radiation from the plant reached 1,015
microsievert (0.1015 rem) - an amount equivalent to that allowable
for ordinary people in one year.' Residents of the Fukushima area
were advised to stay inside, close doors and windows, turn off
air conditioning, and to cover their mouths with masks, towels or
handkerchiefs as well as not to drink tap water. By the evening of
March 12, the exclusion zone had been extended to 20 kilometres
(12 mi) around the plant and 70,000 to 80,000 people had been
evacuated from homes in northern Japan. A second, nearly identical
hydrogen explosion occurred in the reactor building for Unit 3 on
March 14, with similar effects. A third explosion in the “pressure
suppression room” of Unit 2 initially was said not to have breached
the reactor’s inner steel containment vessel, but later reports indicated
that the explosion damaged the steel containment structure of Unit 2
and much larger releases of radiation were expected than previously.
Disposed rods of reactor Unit 4 were stored outside the reactor
in a separate pool which ran dry, yielding fire and risk of serious
contamination.” Danger posed a severe risk outbreak nuclear flu.
“Staff was brought down from 800 Fukushima, who have been
named the 'Fukushima 50' by the press. Events are still developing.”
Reactor shutdown after the 2011 Sendai earthquake and tsunami
failure of emergency cooling caused an explosion Level 3 at the
Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant, overheating plus radioactivity
“After the 2011 Tō hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11,
the cooling systems for three reactors (numbers 1,2 and 4) of
the Fukushima-Daini nuclear power plant were compromised
due to damage from the tsunami. Nuclear Engineering International
reported that all four units were successfully automatically shut
down, but emergency diesel generators at the site were Damaged
by the 9.2 magnitude earthquake People were evacuated around
10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the plant. An evacuation order
was issued, because of possible radioactive contamination.”
Stuart Arm incorrectly states, 'apart from Chernobyl, no nuclear
workers or members of the public have ever died as a result of
exposure to radiation due to a commercial nuclear reactor incident.'
Among cover ups lethal doses were received workers timed out.
Beware new nuclear flu especially nuclear waste escapes near you.
“Benjamin K. Sovacool has reported that worldwide
there have been 99 accidents at nuclear power plants.
Fifty-seven accidents have occurred since the Chernobyl disaster,
and 57% (56 out of 99) of all nuclear-related accidents have occurred
in the USA. Relatively few accidents involved fatalities.” Statistics?
The “Paul Scherrer Institute found in separate studies that during
the period from 1970 to 1992, there were just 39 on-the-job deaths
of nuclear power plant workers worldwide.” Stuart Arm found none?
Most sources quoted were limited to the “List of civilian nuclear accidents - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia” to allow reader ease in data checking.
Copyright © Terence George Craddock
Written in March 2011 on the 18.3.2011. Data check December 2nd 2011.
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